This attribute is used when a sound is dropped from a word. The tag also includes a sound attribute that describes the sound that is being dropped as well as the position of that sound.

This attribute is used when the wrong tense is used in a phrase. For instance ‘We wasn’t on the grind’ would be tagged. This is accompanied by the attribute person which is marked as the person that the word should be, in this case first person plural.

This attribute is used when a word is deleted from a sentence. It is like dropping but on a word level rather than sound. The tag is typically used for copula deletion (the deletion of to be words) and is always an empty tag. It is accompanied by the class attribute which describes the word class of the missing word. It can be one of the following: "copula", "preposition", "auxiliary", "to", "object".

This attribute is used when a phrase uses tense/aspect in a manner that is different than Standard American English (SAE) This attribute is accompanied by the tense attribute which describes one of the tenses used, which are described below:

Aspect of AAVE
Tense Example
Past I been/done/did flown it
Progressive He been working
Habitual He be working Tuesdays
Present He be working it
Future I'mma/ I gonna fly it

This attribute is used when there is a double negative or a negative concord. This has no accompanying attributes

This attribute is used when a word is contracted that is abnormal to SAE. This means that words like "it’s" will not be tagged by words like "tryna" will be tagged. The attribute is accompanied with the word1, word2, and an optional word3 attribute. These describe the non-concatenated words.

References to: brands of alcohol, consumption of alcohol, drinking games, effects of alcohol, and colloquial terms for types of alcohol.

Criticism of the rap game and of phony rappers.

References to: drugs, the use and sale of drugs, and users of drugs. Marijuana is not included in this category.

References to fashion designers and brands, as well as references to articles of clothing.

Any mention of food, in any form. Also, mentions of consumption of food.

All references to geographical locations, whether explicit or implicit. The ref attribute contains the official name of the reference, due to the fact that some references are nicknames or abbreviations.

References to guns, both direct and indirect.

This tag denotes those who do not enjoy Joey's music or who do not support him. Also refers to those who are only interested in being around Joey due to his fame and fortune.

The hip hop tag always refers to a rapper or rap group, but these references occur in several ways: directly referencing a song or artist name (this example refers to a song by rapper Rick Ross entitled BMF: Blowing Money Fast); indirectly referencing a figure in hip hop using symbolism and figurative language (this example refers to Joey's hip hop collective Pro Era, which has 47 closeknit members); and references to figures in hip hop by quoting or paraphrasing another rapper's raps (this example shows Joey rapping lyrics from Jay-Z's Song Cry).

This tag denotes a reference to a historical event or figure (including figures in ancient mythology).

This tag is used to mark any references to money, divided into two qualifications, pursuit of money and possession of money.

This tag marks a reference or phrase indicating that Joey is talking about things that invoke nostalgia and hearken back to past times.

The popculture tag denotes a reference to a pop culture entity, whether blatantly or indirectly.

The power tag marks figures and ideas that have power/control in society, such as police or racism.

The religion tag here is reflective of the spiritual beliefs found in the lyrics of our corpus. In some cases this refers to Christian ideas, while in other cases this tag marks references to third eye spiritualism.

This tag marks references to a sexual act, whether tacit and blatant.

This tag marks all sports references. The sports tag can refer to an athlete or sports figure as well as to general sports-related terms and objects.

The purpose of this tag is to indicate any raps that talk about the difficulties of life at various stages of life and wealth.

This tag indicates either Joey's pursuit of or possession of success. This comes in a variety of colorful expressions that are all quite varied.

The violence tag is used to denote any indication of violent behavior, both from Joey and his people and simply generally in the hood.

This tag is used to mark any instance where Joey discusses marijuana-related activities.

This tag marks references to women, and is divided into two groups using qualifiers positive and negative, which label the connotation of the marked word or phrase.

A poetic device in which there is a repetition of the first consonant in a series of multiple words.

A poetic device in which one word becomes more phonologically similar to at least one other word, esentially the rappers delivery of the words produces a transformation in which the previously dissimilar words now seem to rhyme.

A poetic device in which words near each other have a repetition of a vowel in nonrhyming stressed syllables.

A poetic device in which there is a correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words.

A poetic device in which a rhyme is formed by words with similar but not identical sounds. Typically, either the vowels are different while the consonants are identical, or the consonants are different while the vowels are identical.


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